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Bitcoin greenhouse gas emissions

updated every 24 hours
Hydro-only
Scenario

3.52

MtCO2e
Best case: Greenhouse gas emissions assuming Bitcoin miners rely exclusively on hydroelectric power.
Estimated

84.87

MtCO2e
Annualised emissions
Best guess: Greenhouse gas emissions assuming Bitcoin miners rely on a variety of different energy sources.
Coal-only
Scenario

167.66

MtCO2e
Worst case: Greenhouse gas emissions assuming Bitcoin miners rely exclusively on coal power.
Note: "Historical" refers to the period before location-specific data was available (world electricity mix is used). "Assessed" refers to the period for which location-specific data was available. "Predicted" refers to the period between now and the latest mining map update (the last available mining map data is used). More information can be found in the Methodology section. GHG emissions are expressed in million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e). The model starts on July 18th 2010, as no electricity consumption data was available for the prior period.
Note: Monthly/yearly GHG emission figures are the sum of the daily figures for the respective period calculated using the best-guess estimate. The cumulative consumption is the sum of the daily figures since the start of the model on 18 July 2010. More information can be found in the Methodology section. GHG emissions are expressed in million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e). A separate analysis that ignores profitability considerations suggests that Bitcoin’s cumulative electricity consumption for the period between January 2009 and July 2010 has amounted to 4.74 megawatt-hours (MWh), or 0.00000474 TWh. Even assuming that the electricity was generated exclusively by coal-fired power plants, this would result in only 4.74 tCO2e – a mere rounding error.

Energy-related estimates

The model also provides estimates of Bitcoin's underlying electricity consumption by source and emissions intensity. Both estimates are derived from geographical data on Bitcoin mining operations and regional data on energy sources used for electricity generation.

Note: The electricity consumption by source is based on a combination of annual data on electricity generation by source and monthly data on the geolocational distribution of the Bitcoin network hashrate. The observation period ranges from September 2019 to the date of the latest mining map data release. More information can be found in the Methodology section.
Note: As with electricity consumption by source, the model also provides an estimate of the average greenhouse gas emission intensity. Specified in terms of greenhouse gases emitted per kilowatt-hour (gCO2e/kWh), the estimate indicates the environmental footprint of the average kilowatt-hour consumed by Bitcoin miners.

"Historical" refers to the period before location-specific data was available (world electricity mix is used). "Assessed" refers to the period for which location-specific data was available. "Predicted" refers to the period between now and the latest mining map update (the last available mining map data is used). More information can be found in the Methodology section.